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Harley-Davidson

 

The name of this amenity company correctly written as «Harley-Davidson», but in our country traditionally taken a little changed the pronunciation and spelling. So, the two school friend of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, William Harley (William Harley and Arthur Davidson (Arthur Davidson) at the beginning of the 20th century built 167-CC engine for your boat, following the model of the engine of «De Dion». Then they set the motor on the bike, but found a lack of power. Not bear loads and rickety Bicycle frame, so in 1903 appeared much more solid machine. 405-CC engine with automatic filling valve with power 3 PS allowed to take any of the UPS without having to pedal. Reinforced frame with loop-shaped bend in the lower part made it possible to locate the motor is to lower the center of gravity. The transmission to the rear wheels flat belt had idler pulley, played the role of coupling. The design was so good that its creators, which was soon joined elder brothers Arthur Davidson Walter (Walter and William (William) - a few years was not engaged its modernization, focusing on the organization of production.

In 1907 motorcycle with a new motor (440 cm3, 4 HP) received korotkovichi forward fork long spring struts - a very effective site that motorcycles company was fitted to the late 40-ies. Then William Harley started work on two-cylinder V-shaped engine (810 cm3, Ls) with automatic intake valves, which debuted in 1909 on the model 5D», but his work was not recognized as satisfactory.

More advanced two-cylinder version 7D» was presented in 1911. Saving dimension, a new engine was a mechanical actuator top of the intake valves. Reinforced frame differed direct front pipe and two upper pipes, between which housed a tank of gas. In 1912 the modified configuration of the upper frame tube has allowed to lower the height of the saddle. Working volume of a two-cylinder motor rose to 989 cm3 and a power-up to 8 HP (model «HE»). In picking motorcycles appeared options with a drive to the rear wheel and chain with a clutch at the back of the hub.

New single-cylinder model «5-35» debuted in 1913. Engine (565 cm3, 5 PS) received mechanical drive top of the inlet valve. In 1914, the equipment of all motorcycles entered a two-stage gearbox to the rear wheel hub, a year later it was replaced by a three-stage, installed behind the engine. News of 1915 were a generator and electric light.

In the effort to win the championship racing in 1913 Harley-Davidson formed racing Department. For special sport model was invited William Ottawa (William Ottaway), who have previously worked in the company «tor». For the season of 1917 Ottawa has designed a two-cylinder V-shaped engine with 4-valve cylinder heads (998 cm3, 15 HP). But their potential is the creation manifested already in the 20-ies: America entered world war I, and the company switched to the production of motorcycles for the military.

When it came time of peace, to replace single-cylinder models come very unusual machine - 19W Sport». Explicitly created with an eye on the British «Douglas», she received a two-cylinder boxer Nizhnekamsky engine (584 cm3, 6 HP, cylinders which were located along the frame. The model was produced in five years, but enjoyed much greater popularity in the USA, and on foreign markets since the company Harley-Davidson, issued in 1920 28 thousand cars, left on one of the first places in the world on manufacture of motorcycles and had more tysyach dealers in 67 countries).

In 1917 was made the first machine «17J» with 1000-kubovy two-cylinder V-shaped engine, and in 1921 debuted two 1207-m3 version of this bike. Model «J» received battery ignition system, and on the model of the «FD» stood magneto. The new frame, which allowed to decrease the height of the saddle, and characteristic of drop-shaped petrol tank of the motorcycle received in 1925. In the same year, the company introduced a new single-cylinder model «And»vertical Nizhnekamsky engine displacement of 346 cm3 and 8 HP Through debut its verhnekamsky version of «AA» with a capacity of 12 HP, on the basis of which was created sport bike «Picuter» (peashooter - rifle), successfully acting in road and track races. In the same year, 1926 came to market upgraded modification «JD» (1207 cm3, 24 HP), and her version of «JDS» with deformirovanii engine and lower ratios in the transmission intended for operation with a sidecar. In 1929 replaced 350-kubovy machines was replaced by the more «respectable» Nizhnekamsky model «With» (493 cm3,10.5 HP).

Meanwhile, Harley-Davidson was working on a new family of two-cylinder V-shaped Nizhnekamsky motors. First in 1929 debuted model «D» (738 cm3, 15 HP). It forced variant of the «DL» develop the capacity of 18.5 PS one year to replace the old machines series «J» came Nizhnekamsky 1207-a cube series (27-strong «V» and a 30-strong «VL»). At first motorcycles were suffering from childhood diseases: «D» hastily had to develop a new heavy-duty frame and for «V» -more massive flywheel and clutch. But by 1932, these deficiencies have been eliminated, which, however, has not helped to avoid a dramatic drop in sales caused by the economic crisis. In 1930, the company has produced about 17,000 motorcycles, and in 1933 - just 3703 instance. In an attempt to develop new markets in 1932, the company released «Service» (Servicar) -three-wheeled cargo variant model «D».

Debuted in 1936, the «E» has become for the company Harley-Davidson breakthrough in several directions. The new engine displacement of 998 cm3 was equipped with upper valves and circulating lubrication dry sump (previously motors company was equipped with lubrication system «burnout»). The engine develops an output of 37 PS in the basic variant and 40 PS in the accelerated version of the «ES». In a separate unit was located four-speed transmission. The motorcycle was hard to curl duplex frame and the instrument panel on the gas tank. In the history of this model was entered under the name «Nakled» (knucklehead - the articulated head), received for the peculiar shape of the upper lids. In the version «ES» motorcycle speeds up to 150 km/h, and in 1937 Joe Petrol (Joe Petrali) clothed in paleobotanical version of the forced showed the speed 219,12 km/H.

For the season 1937 many of the changes introduced to the series «E», were introduced into the design Nizhnekamsky models of Harley-Davidson: the new design of the instrument panel, the tank, a circulating lubrication system, duplex frame and a four-speed transmission for 1207-the bottom of the machine. 738-a cube version after modernization has an index «WL», her big sister - «UL». Additionally, he started the production model «UH» with Nizhnekamsky engine (1312 cm3, 39 HP). And in 1941, the company presented a version verhnekamsky machine «F» with increased up to 13000 cm3 displacement engine.

The second world war again broke the peaceful evolution Harley-Davidson. The main model was the «WLA» - the army's version of «WL». In the war years the company has produced about 90,000 of these motorcycles. In addition, in 1942, was released about a thousand motorcycle model «HA 750»created on sample of «BMW R71»: two-cylinder boxer Nizhnekamsky engine (750 cm3, 23 HP), cardan transmission to the rear wheels, candle rear suspension.

After the war the company resumed production of «civil» version «WL», and verhnekamsky «E» and «F». The unexpected addition of the model range was introduced in 1947 easy motorcycle «S125» - cylinder two-stroke engine (123 cm3, 3 HP). Actually, this design was a military trophy: reparatory agreements the company has received documentation in German «DQC RT125».

01.11.2016
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